First Debian Linux Usage Experience


If you are interested in something related to Debian Linux, you should probably read either my Debian Quick Start Guide or Debian FAQ

This page is just my diary about the very first use of Debian Linux.

Sincerely, Andrey Olegovich.


As the basis for the guide, I chose an article Correct Debian Installation Previously, on a clean hard drive I allocated 20 GB for Debian and 6 GB for swap (how much space you really need to allocate, I have only an approximate concept, because Blue allocated 4 GB for swap, but it was on a laptop, and On a stationary I have 4 GB of RAM)

I downloaded a small image of netinstall ia64 from the Debian website that disconnected all hard drives except one clean one. I tried to install. Mistake

Missing operating system

I decided that I chose the wrong architecture. I recorded another i386 image on cd-rw

It became visible when loading.

When loading, it was necessary to choose a country, city, keyboard layout - nothing complicated. Next, you had to select the functions for each section. (provided that the partition mode was selected manually). Those. if I want a swap of 6 GB and a system of 20 GB and not vice versa, I must indicate this.

Entering a password for the superuser (in other words, the administrator) and a simple user is also easy, the main thing is do not write qwerty otherwise the Chinese will take over your server.

When everything was established, I became the proud owner of a black screen and console.

Fortunately, I remember the basic commands cd, ls, mkdir, mount

Because with netinstall, apparently, almost nothing in the kit goes; even KDE could not be downloaded from the Internet.

Downloading updates and other joys is led by something called aptitude.

The file with the list of addresses from where this aptitude can download updates lies in / etc / apt / and is called sources.list

To go to the directory / etc / apt / you need to type cd / etc / apt

To open the sources.list file, you must first go to the directory and then type nano sources.list (you can write everything right away without going first)

As I understand it, nano is an analog of notepad in Windows.

I uncommented the line where the address was specified but because the computer cannot connect to the Internet yet

aptitude update

did not give a result.

I tried to install pptp-linux from the disk (the path to the disk was originally opened in sources.list) - I inserted the disk with netinstall and typed

aptitude install pptp-linux

In response, 3 new packages were installed.

tried again

aptitude update

No result

I decided to download and install the xl2tpd package

I downloaded it, but I still can’t install it

I decided to edit the file

/ etc / network interfaces

appended there

allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp address netmask gateway

Then updated the network settings with the command

/etc/init.d/networking restart

It didn’t help, still -

Temporary error while trying to get '' IP address

I talked with Oleg, he said that for 4 GB of RAM you can not choose the i386 architecture because lacks the length of the name. The 32-bit architecture allows addressing 2 to 32 degrees bytes of memory, which is slightly less than 4 GB.

UPD Michael believes that this is not the point, not just 4 GB of RAM but 3.8 will be used, and you can make a mistake only by choosing a set - amd64 instead of i386 with a real 32bit architecture.

Reinstall, this time amd64

I chose another network card eth1 at boot instead of eth0

Internet has appeared.

Managed to put Midnight Commander

apt-get install mc

And archivers

apt-get install zip unzip p7zip bzip2

I decided to make Russian in the console

apt-get install console-cyrillic console-terminus

It seems to be all set, but when I then gave the command


The computer froze. I had to use a keyboard shortcut

when pressed Alt + PrtScr sequentially pressed R E I S U B

the computer rebooted. thank (

I decided to put the iceweasel browser. I pre-registered the line in /etc/apt/sources.list

deb squeeze-backports iceweasel-release

apt-get install iceweasel

Received in response a message:

Packages that have unsatisfied dependencies:

iceweasel: Depends: libgtk2.0-0 (> = 2.10) but it will not be installed : Depends: xulrunner-10.0 (> = 10.0-1, etc.

If you try to put one of these packages - the following will be required - I decided to unravel this chain

One package - libpixman even managed to install, but on some

libcairo2 has failed. T.O. manually put down all the required packages failed.

In general, the browser is a complete file. I'll try to put x

aptitude install x-window-system

After the process has stopped I am writing


The black screen on which you can move the mouse cursor In the upper left corner is the inscription root @ debian: ~ # (upper tilde) you can enter commands

Moved with the mouse. He led the team. the question is up: what is this nonsense?

Why is it necessary


Alt + Ctrl + Backspace

nothing has happened

Had to reboot


I decided to put a sound

apt-cache search alsa

The result is a huge list, in which it is unclear whether alsamixer is there or not.

aptitude install alsa-utils alsa-base alsa-tools

Something downloaded and sort of installed.

I enter the team


He turned on. I'm trying to configure something.

I want to check whether the mp3 music will be played. Mounted a USB flash drive. There is no mp3 on it. I decided to unmount and realized that I did not know how. It turned out that I was making a mistake - instead of umount / mnt / flash1 I was writing unmount / mnt / flash1. Linux is an intuitive OS, especially for beginners.

You must first exit the flash drive and then unmount. Which is similar to safe removal in Windows.

Throw off a couple of songs on a flash drive. The film in .mkv and the holy image of Blue in a black olympic shirt will probably help.

To understand where to write all these files, I used the command

fdisk -l

it lists the devices, shows where it starts and where each device ends, as well as the file system. This information was enough for me to understand that my disk for music films and other things is sda6

I usually call these discs Free. I create such a section in mnt

mkdir / mnt / free

and mount sda6 there

mount / dev / sda6 / mnt / free

Mounted the disk. I created music, movies, photo folders on it and laid out files on them.

Trying to watch a movie. For this I’m typing

aptitude install Vlc

The installation process has gone. A couple of times I had to choose yes. Everything was settled. I go to the folder where the movie is. Typing

vlc movie_name

I get an error.

VLC is not supposed to be run as root. Sorry

The error is clear. You need to log in as a simple user. By a simple enumeration of the teams I found the right one



vlc / mnt / free / movies / movie_name

Again a mistake. This time

Blocked: call to unsetenv ("DBUS_ACTIVATION_ADRESS") and then a dozen more lines.

What all this means I have no idea. I suspect that either there are no drivers on the video card, or any codecs.

The moment is near when all this confusing OS will get bored so that you don’t want to do anything already.

I try to put mplayer

aptitude install mplayer

It was established, but could not open the film. I try to open the song, it opens, but there is no sound.

I try to put gnome

aptitude install gnome-core gnome gdm

Black screen and cursor again.

I downloaded the driver from the amd site presumably for my video card. I downloaded the movie in .avi you never know with .mkv my system is not friends now. Threw on a computer with Debian.

movie.avi also does not play

Found the article

I install the compilation package

apt-get install build-essential linux-headers - $ (uname -r)

It’s generally horrible, what is it? How can you guess where to read before? In Windows, at least you can poke somewhere for a long time and find something. And this is just a brain stem. So put something from the ceiling.

Then I go to the folder where I downloaded the driver and write

CC = gcc-4.3 ./ driver name

(I have realtec 4450)

What is CC, why is it equal to gcc-4.3

I did not install any gcc and SS did not install either.

Nevertheless, some installation was made. I was even offered to agree to a license. Did startx no result. Because I can’t reboot.

The result of installing the video card driver:

X's do not work.

There was a picture when playing the movie .avi and movie .mkv

No sound. I'll try to put the driver on the audio. True, I don’t know what to choose - I have an integrated audio card. The motherboard is like asus p5q, but there are no drivers for Linux on the asus site, except for the BIOS. Some manuals.

I try to do without firewood


alsactl init

In response, I found out that my audio card is unknown.

Apparently you need to rebuild the kernel. I download the last stable with

I read an article

Called blue he said dial

uname -a

to find out the kernel version My kernel is debian 2.6.32-5 He said it was old. Need to upgrade. He also said, just in case, add to source.list

deb squeeze main contrib non-free deb testing main contrib non-free

to do

apt-get update

apt-get upgrade

When upgrading the entire system, you will need to select languages and stuff again. I put new fashionable X

apt-get install xfce4 slim

During the installation, the Internet was cut off for a while and everything hung up at 86 percent. Blue suggested pressing Ctrl + c up Enter, but so far I have written about it and it all worked. Everything has been established. Writing


I'll get into the X. I select "Use default settings" I want to start the browser, but this option is inactive. Came out of X by pressing

Ctrl + Alt F1

Changed the console to

Alt + F2

I put the browser

apt-get install iceweasel

Again, a message appears about packages that this time it is impossible to authenticate one of these packages my friend xulrunner-10.0 Install without checking. I go to X using

Alt + F7

The browser is working. I get out of the X

Alt + Ctrl + F2

I want to put skype

apt-get install skype

Error A candidate for installation was not found for the skype package. I downloaded skype from the site after specifying to the browser the directory to download - / home / andrey I went into the directory

dpkg -i skype-debian_2.2.0.35-1

(-i this is install, -r remount, --purge - complete cleanup)

there were some difficulties with dependencies. I typed

apt-get -f install

then completely cleared of skype and set again

We make sound. I type lspci to see a list of devices on the PCI bus. I went to alsamixer where there were 00 at the bottom of the columns and replaced it with MM; I raised everything to the maximum. No sound. It turned out everything was exactly the opposite, you need to do everywhere 00 and not MM then there is sound. Trying to turn on the movie

mplayer / mnt / free / movies / title

does not turn on. I am sitting under the root. I went to X (there I am also under the root. But the film started up, there is no sound). I want to see the broadcast of the Unix-Triumph match through a browser, I need an Adobe plugin

apt-cache search flash

One of the finds was the one that Adobe needed and installed it.

apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree

then I reboot the browser. The broadcast is visible. Triumph summed up. I want to install utorrent. I went to the site. Downloaded utorrent-server-3.0-25053.tar.gz Unzipped the command

tar -zxvf utorrent-server-3.0-25053.tar.gz

Another file appeared in the andrey folder


Decided to apply dpkg -i

dpkg -i utorrent-server-v3_0

Got errors

dpkg-split: error: read error utorrent-server-v3_0 /: This is a directory and so on

Since this is a directory, I go into it.

cd utorrent-server-v3_0


Three files lie (or you can’t guess the directory anymore)

docs utserver

I abandoned the idea of installing utorrent. I decided to put transmisson I downloaded from of. site. did dpgk -i then apt-get install transmission Opened the article Created the user transmission without password adduser --disabled-password transmission I switch to this user

su transmission

(tried to switch through login but failed)

I enter the team

transmission-daemon -f

team not found Decided to download ktorrent. This time the archive was .tar.bz2 unpacked using tar -xvjf

Did dpkg -i and apt-get install ktorrent

And o-miracle - it worked. My choice is ktorrent!

I put the amarok audio player. To start it, you need to type amarok in the X in the terminal

I put filezilla, created the folder / mnt / free / andreyolegovich_site to copy the site for editing pages there. I want to create a page where I will bring this text about installing debian. But since I'm sitting in the X from under andrey to write to the folder nothing happened. Need to bother with access rights. I already have no time to do this. I cannot transfer the task to tomorrow.

The weekend is over. A brief summary. There is Debian. Under it, you can watch movies, listen to music and download torrents.


I want to put firewood on the printer Brother DCP 7010 downloaded from the website brdcp7010lpr-2.0.1-1.i386.rpm it is not clear why I downloaded i386 but I don’t see any alternatives I read the instructions on the website It is written that I need to install ia32-libs first already installed. It remains to understand how to open .rpm Hang up - you can immediately download .deb and download it. But I could not unpack it due to the difference in architecture - which is what I expected.

I downloaded brother-lpr-drivers-laser-_2.0.1-3-0ubuntu3_amd64.deb Unpacked. Got errors: No multiple dependencies. Manually install failed.

However, the instructions on the site indicate that you first need to install a2ps, brother-cups-wrapper-laser, brother-lpr-drivers-common, ia32-libs, libc6-i386 I'll try set everything in order

I downloaded a2ps_4.14-1.1_amd64.deb It also can not be installed normally. Writes a dependency error


Recommends lpr, wdiff

psutils in turn swears on dependence on brother-lpr-drivers-laser

Download brother-lpr-drivers-common for ubuntu Unpacked, but when installing again, swears on dependencies It looks like they depend on each other in a circle. How to pose a riddle in this case, but Linux is an intuitive system. It is important to keep this in mind.

brother-cups-wrapper-laser says that unless brother-lpr-drivers-common is configured it will not work

Trying to install libc6-i386

Again this mutual responsibility. There is nothing left but

apt-get -f install

Also advised by

Posted by

aptitude install cupsys gs-esp foomatic-bin foo2zjs cups-pdf

(apt-get in this case did not fit, I wonder what the difference is)

A blue screen popped up asking me to configure the package. I need to specify the workgroup.

I will write porosenok_petr

Again, something is unpacked. typed in the browser

http: // localhost: 631

The CUSP window appeared. I did Add new printer. My brother 7010 decided on that. There, I had to enter the location and model data. How to choose a model from the list that was I do not know, left by default.

I will try to install some .pdf reader and print from n

Now .pdf files can be opened and even stretched. But for some reason they are tied to the upper left corner of the screen. Print until it worked. Reading page

I read the page this is a repost from maydebian blog.

On the advice from this page I typed

aptitude install cupsys gs-esp foomatic-bin foo2zjs

Nothing is installed. The printer has printed a test page. EPDFView does not refuse to print from .pdf, but the output is only blank sheets. I deleted (or maybe not, I made dpkg -r ePDFView) ePDFView and installed it, on the advice of Blue evince

apt-get install evince

I am now confused: when do I need to use dpkg -i and when only apt-get install?

Print quality is poor, as if paper were stained.

Now I’ll deal with folder permissions. I want to be able to download torrents in X and through filezilla also from under a simple user. did

chmod 777 / mnt / free

helps. I decided to edit the html page in nano. Now the blue font on a black background is unreadable. You need to find how to adjust the colors in nano.

Alt + y

the text has become white.

Ctrl + k cuts the line where the cursor is.

But the question is how to insert a piece from another text file into my place through nano so far above my competence. I'll try through the X. I put the text editor abiword

apt-get install abiword

abiword html file did not master put bluefish

apt-get install bluefish

He mastered (through X). True, the problem with the Russian language.

Abiword also did not master Russian in a text file. I'll try to save in a different encoding.

Apparently too much text - the buffer did not fit. Will have to parts.


I want to delete the previously created directories hard1, hard2, hard3 and create an exchange for the disk with fat32 instead

rm -r hard *

mkdir / mnt / exchange

chmod 777 exchange

mount / dev / sda7 / mnt / exchange

Now I can transfer files between OSes through this disk. I wonder if there are still file systems that are visible from both Windows and Debian. Fat32 has a file size limit that is too strong.


I install the program for viewing geeqie images

aptitude install geeqie


Blue said the office could help with encoding. I'll try to put it.

apt-get install libreoffice

Something is being put. At the end I get a message.

apt-get install pkg / experimental will now not only switch the candidate of package pkg to the version from the release experimental but also of all dependence of pkg if the current candidate can't satisfy a versioned depedency.

- David Kalnischkies Fri, 03 Dec 2010 14:09:12 +0100

/ tmp / tmpVzAhfJ (END)

Blue said press q

Next ran the text

apt-listchange and much more I do not have time to write Everything seems to be settled. But with the encoding, this did not help me in any way. Blue offers

cat file.html | iconv -f cp1251 -t utf-8> new.html

One way. Then open, edit, close.

cat new.html | iconv -f utf-8 -t cp1251> file.html

On the other side. And put it on the site. I check. Works.

The next goal is to establish ftp - a connection between a desktop PC with Debian and a laptop with Windows 7

Installed Debian on the laptop using this page. Everything works the same as on a stationary one. I note one interesting fact - I succeeded in installing ktorrent and amarok only the third time, during the installation a text message appeared from the developers or the system one, I had to press q but I did not know and pressed Ctrl + O and Ctrl + D until I realized that I was wrong .

To connect to a non-existent ftp server, you need a network. I can use the cord, but since I'm driving around with the network anyway, I want to configure wifi. I go sequentially to the pages:

From what I read so far it became clear that you need to install wireless tools.

apt-get install wireless-tools Established

libc6 and libiw30 are already installed.

apt-get install network-manager

Something was installed received messages on a blue screen.

The configuration file has been changed. New version of configuration file available / etc / default / rcS, but the version of the file on the system was changed locally

and a choice of options

install version from package save the installed local version show differences between versions show dec. m. vers. parallel launch a new shell to clarify the situation

On the advice of Semyon chose the penultimate option

Settings file changed Differences line by line # # # / etc / default / rcS # / etc / default / rcS

This is the beginning, as I understand it, there are no changes in this line

UTC = no | > # assume that the BIOS clock is set to UTC time (recommended) > UTC = yes

I asked Semen - "Did he change my time?" (hereinafter bring the dialogue) O_o [0:46:10] Andrey Olegovich:? [0:46:14] Semen Dubina: Probably, you made the time in Windows display normally? [0:46:32] Andrey Olegovich: I myself did not do anything over time on the laptop [0:46:36 | Edited 0:46:56] Andrey Olegovich: on landline switched to London [0:46:47] Andrey Olegovich: because it was buggy [0:49:45] Andrey Olegovich: RAMRUN = no | RAMLOCK = n | # mount / run / lock as a tmpfs (separately from / run) > RAMLOCK = yes > > # mount / run / shm as a tmpfs (separately from / run) > RAMSHM = yes [0:49:49] Semen Dubina: Better update the file ... And set the time for your region. Glitches due to the fact that the real time was less than the time it took to create the files ... [0:50:14] Andrey Olegovich: ok [0:50:31] Semen Dubina: You can just wait three hours, when the time equals with the greenwich, or you can score the normal time in the BIOS ... [0:50:34] Andrey Olegovich: ie i choose [0:50:43] Andrey Olegovich: install the version from the package [0:50:45] Andrey Olegovich: as I understand it [0:50:46] Andrey Olegovich:? [0:51:29] Semen Dubina: Yes. The package builder normally selected the configuration. [0:52:17] Semen Dubina: If glitches start, set the time in the BIOS in GMT, but rather, synchronize with some ntp servers. [0:52:34] Andrey Olegovich: now I will try [0:53:19] Semen Dubina: Does Windows stand with Linux? [0:59:47] Andrey Olegovich: yes [1:00:47] Semen Dubina: Then forget about the correct display of time in Windows, it changes it in the system clock, and does not count from them ...

Selected the option "Install the version from the package." Something has settled.

Blue said run

apt-get install network-manager-gnome

I don’t understand, and here is gnome when I have xfce4, but because I have no other options. Something is being put (the main thing is not to forget about q). It is established. Then from the X.

# nm-applet

Error cannot open display: I go to X. There is also a mistake from the root

: failed to connect to the configuration server most often this is caused by the absence of the D-Bus session bus service or its incorrect settings

From user error

nm-applet: 6634): Gtk-WARNING **: cannot open display:

Blue went to bed. I read on the site that they recommend wicd for xfce4

apt-get install wicd

Wicd is installed. Appeared among the menu items "Internet". He pulled out the power cord. Wicd does not see wireless networks (And they are). I am doing a reboot.

Connection icons appeared in the corner of the screen. Just in case, I’m doing it.

apt-get remove network-manager-gnome

And then reboot

One of the icons is missing. I hover over the second one, select "Connect." - No wireless networks found -

On the advice of, set the value wlan0 in the Wireless interface field. Networks appeared I try to connect to my own, but it does not work.

On the advice of deleted wicd apt-get remove wicd apt-get autoremove apt-get remove network-manager apt-get autoremove reboot

Now there is no Internet via cable. And there is wifi. I will count for a local victory.

With ftp server has so far delayed, because You can do with ssh for now. I decided to put a virtual machine on the laptop and turn on Windows 7 in it. The WB is installed but does not want to work. A lengthy inspection of the forums did not produce results. I try to put it on a PC and record the entire process.

apt-get install virtualbox

Starting VirtualBox kernel modulesNo suitable module for running kernel found ... failed! failed! invoke-rc.d: initscript virtualbox, action "restart" failed. Triggers for python-central are processed ... The virtualbox-dkms package (4.1.10-dfsg-1) is configured ... Loading new virtualbox-4.1.10 DKMS files ... First Installation: checking all kernels ...

debian: / home / andreyolegovich_ru / PC # apt-get install virtualbox

Reading package lists ... Done Building a dependency tree Reading status information ... Done The following additional packages will be installed:

dkms libcurl3 libvncserver0 linux-headers-3.2.0-2-amd64 linux-headers-3.2.0-2-common linux-headers-amd64 linux-kbuild-3.2 virtualbox-dkms virtualbox-qt Suggested packages: libvncserver0-dbg virtualbox-guest-additions-iso vde2 NEW packages to be installed: dkms libcurl3 libvncserver0 linux-headers-3.2.0-2-amd64 linux-headers-3.2.0-2-common linux-headers-amd64 linux-kbuild-3.2 virtualbox virtualbox-dkms virtualbox-qt updated 0, installed 10 new packages, 0 packages were marked for deletion, and 88 packages were not updated. Need to download 23.5 MB / 27.9 MB of archives. After this operation, the amount of occupied disk space will increase by 97.8 MB. Want to continue [D / n]? D

Received: 1 testing / main libcurl3 amd64 7.24.0-1 [332 kB] Received: 2 testing / main libvncserver0 amd64 [242 kB] Received: 3 testing / main virtualbox amd64 4.1.10-dfsg-1 [15.8 MB] Received: 4 testing / main virtualbox-dkms all 4.1.10-dfsg-1 [693 kB] Received: 5 testing / main virtualbox-qt amd64 4.1.10-dfsg-1 [6421 kB] Received 23.5 MB in 19s (1201 kB / s) Selecting previously unselected package libcurl3. (Reading the database ... currently 125,666 files and directories are installed.) The package libcurl3 is unpacked (from the file ... / libcurl3_7.24.0-1_amd64.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package dkms. The dkms package is unpacked (from the file ... / dkms_2.2.0.3-1_all.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package libvncserver0. The package libvncserver0 is unpacked (from the file ... / libvncserver0_0.9.8.2-2_amd64.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package linux-headers-3.2.0-2-common. The linux-headers-3.2.0-2-common package is unpacked (from the file ... / linux-headers-3.2.0-2-common_3.2.12-1_amd64.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package linux-kbuild-3.2. The package linux-kbuild-3.2 is unpacked (from the file ... / linux-kbuild-3.2_3.2.7-2_amd64.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package linux-headers-3.2.0-2-amd64. The package linux-headers-3.2.0-2-amd64 is unpacked (from the file ... / linux-headers-3.2.0-2-amd64_3.2.12-1_amd64.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package linux-headers-amd64. The linux-headers-amd64 package is unpacked (from the file ... / linux-headers-amd64_3.2 + 44_amd64.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package virtualbox. The virtualbox package is unpacked (from the file ... / virtualbox_4.1.10-dfsg-1_amd64.deb) ...

Selecting previously unselected package virtualbox-dkms. The virtualbox-dkms package is unpacked (from the file ... / virtualbox-dkms_4.1.10-dfsg-1_all.deb) ... Selecting previously unselected package virtualbox-qt. The virtualbox-qt package is unpacked (from the file ... / virtualbox-qt_4.1.10-dfsg-1_amd64.deb) ... Triggers for man-db are being processed ... Triggers are processed for menu ... Triggers for gnome-menus are being processed ... Triggers for desktop-file-utils are being processed ... Triggers for shared-mime-info are being processed ... Unknown media type in type 'all / all' Unknown media type in type 'all / allfiles' Unknown media type in type 'uri / mms' Unknown media type in type 'uri / mmst' Unknown media type in type 'uri / mmsu' Unknown media type in type 'uri / pnm' Unknown media type in type 'uri / rtspt' Unknown media type in type 'uri / rtspu' Unknown media type in type 'interface / x-winamp-skin' Triggers for hicolor-icon-theme are being processed ... The libcurl3 package (7.24.0-1) is configured ... Configuring the dkms package ( ... The package libvncserver0 ( is configured ... The linux-headers-3.2.0-2-common package (3.2.12-1) is configured ... The linux-kbuild-3.2 package (3.2.7-2) is configured ... The linux-headers-3.2.0-2-amd64 package (3.2.12-1) is configured ... Examining /etc/kernel/header_postinst.d. run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/header_postinst.d/dkms 3.2.0-2-amd64 Configuring the linux-headers-amd64 package (3.2 + 44) ... The virtualbox package (4.1.10-dfsg-1) is configured ...

Stopping VirtualBox kernel modules. Starting VirtualBox kernel modulesNo suitable module for running kernel found ... failed! failed! invoke-rc.d: initscript virtualbox, action "restart" failed.

Triggers for python-central are being processed ... The virtualbox-dkms package (4.1.10-dfsg-1) is configured ... Loading new virtualbox-4.1.10 DKMS files ... First Installation: checking all kernels ... Building only for 3.2.0-2-amd64 Building initial module for 3.2.0-2-amd64 Done vboxdrv: Running module version sanity check. - Original module - No original module exists within this kernel - Installation - Installing to /lib/modules/3.2.0-2-amd64/updates/dkms/ vboxnetadp.ko: Running module version sanity check. - Original module - No original module exists within this kernel - Installation - Installing to /lib/modules/3.2.0-2-amd64/updates/dkms/

vboxnetflt.ko: Running module version sanity check. - Original module - No original module exists within this kernel - Installation - Installing to /lib/modules/3.2.0-2-amd64/updates/dkms/ vboxpci.ko: Running module version sanity check. - Original module - No original module exists within this kernel - Installation - Installing to /lib/modules/3.2.0-2-amd64/updates/dkms/

depmod ..... DKMS: install completed. Stopping VirtualBox kernel modules. Starting VirtualBox kernel modules. The virtualbox-qt package (4.1.10-dfsg-1) is configured ... Triggers are processed for menu ... Next, follow the instructions from doing the following debian manipulations: / home / andreyolegovich_ru / PC # uname -r 3.2.0-2-amd64 debian: / home / andreyolegovich_ru / PC # aptitude install linux-headers-3.2.0-2-amd64 No packages will be installed, updated, or uninstalled. 0 packages updated, 0 new ones installed, 0 packages marked for deletion, and 88 packages not updated. You need to get 0 B archives. After unpacking, 0 B will be occupied.

debian: / home / andreyolegovich_ru / PC # nano /etc/apt/sources.list In the sources.list file, I added the line deb squeeze-backports main


debian: / home / andreyolegovich_ru / PC # aptitude update

Ign stable InRelease Ign squeeze InRelease Receive: 1 squeeze-updates InRelease [114 kB] Hit stable Release.gpg Receive: 2 squeeze / updates InRelease [87.8 kB] Receive: 3 squeeze-backports InRelease [78.5 kB] Hit stable release Ign squeeze-backports InRelease Hit stable / non-free amd64 Packages Get: 4 squeeze-backports Release.gpg [828 B] Ign stable / non-free TranslationIndex Hit squeeze-backports Release Ign squeeze-backports Release Receive: 5 testing InRelease [185 kB] Ign squeeze-backports / iceweasel-release amd64 Packages / DiffIndex Ign squeeze-backports / iceweasel-release TranslationIndex Receive: 6 squeeze / updates / main Sources [72.7 kB] Get: 7 squeeze-backports / main amd64 Packages [403 kB] Get: 8 squeeze / updates / main amd64 Packages [216 kB] Hit squeeze Release.gpg Hit squeeze-backports / iceweasel-release amd64 Packages Ign stable / non-free Translation-ru_RU Hit squeeze-updates / main Sources / DiffIndex Hit squeeze-updates / main amd64 Packages / DiffIndex Ign squeeze-updates / main TranslationIndex Ign stable / non-free Translation-en Ign squeeze / updates / main TranslationIndex Ign stable / non-free Translation-en Hit squeeze Release Get: 9 testing / main amd64 Packages / DiffIndex [7876 B] Hit testing / contrib amd64 Packages / DiffIndex Get: 10 testing / non-free amd64 Packages / DiffIndex [4645 B] Ign testing / contrib TranslationIndex

Get: 11 testing / main TranslationIndex [2223 B] Ign testing / non-free TranslationIndex Receive: 12 squeeze-updates / main amd64 Packages [13.7 kB] Ign squeeze-backports / iceweasel-release Translation-en_US Ign squeeze-backports / iceweasel-release Translation-en Hit squeeze / main Sources Hit squeeze / main amd64 Packages Hit squeeze / contrib amd64 Packages Hit squeeze / non-free amd64 Packages Ign squeeze / contrib TranslationIndex Hit squeeze / main TranslationIndex Ign squeeze / non-free TranslationIndex Ign squeeze-backports / main TranslationIndex Ign squeeze-backports / iceweasel-release Translation-en Get: 13 testing / main amd64 2012-03-31-1412.38.pdiff [558 B] Get: 14 testing / non-free amd64 2012-04-01-0210.44.pdiff [2015 B] Get: 15 testing / main amd64 2012-03-31-1412.38.pdiff [558 B] Receive: 16 testing / contrib Translation-en [36,2 kB] Hit testing / main Translation-ru Receive: 17 testing / main Translation-en [3795 kB] Ign squeeze / updates / main Translation-ru_RU Ign squeeze / updates / main Translation-en Ign squeeze / updates / main Translation-en Ign squeeze-backports / main Translation-ru_RU Get: 18 testing / non-free amd64 2012-04-01-0210.44.pdiff [2015 B] Ign squeeze-backports / main Translation-ru Ign squeeze-backports / main Translation-en Receive: 19 testing / non-free Translation-en [63.5 kB] Hit squeeze / main Translation-ru Get: 20 testing / main amd64 2012-04-01-0210.44.pdiff [32.7 kB] Get: 21 testing / main amd64 2012-04-01-0210.44.pdiff [32.7 kB] Ign squeeze-updates / main Translation-ru_RU Ign squeeze-updates / main Translation-ru Ign squeeze-updates / main Translation-en Ign testing / contrib Translation-ru_RU Ign testing / contrib Translation-en Ign testing / non-free Translation-ru_RU Ign testing / non-free Translation-ru Ign squeeze / contrib Translation-en_US Ign squeeze / contrib Translation-en Ign squeeze / contrib Translation-en Ign squeeze / non-free Translation-ru_RU Ign squeeze / non-free Translation-en Ign squeeze / non-free Translation-en Fetched 5117 kB in 5s (875 kB / s) W: GPG error: squeeze-backports Release: The following signatures cannot be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 85A3D26506C4AE2A W: Duplicate sources.list entry squeeze / main amd64 Packages (/var/lib/apt/lists/

Current status: 97 updated [+9], 11164 new [+76]. W: GPG error: squeeze-backports Release: The following signatures cannot be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 85A3D26506C4AE2A

Tried to swap shell with chsh command. As a result, root access was lost. andrey @ debian: / usr / bin $ login login: Cannot possibly work without effective root andrey @ debian: / usr / bin $ su Password: Cannot execute / usr / bin / csh: No such file or directory

Firstly I've booted in recovery mod, installed csh, then installed sudo (I've never used it before, and do not know how to use it now). It did not help. Then I've booted in recovery mod again and changed shells for root and for andrey with usermod -s / bin / bash root. Now I can use su as it was before. I think it was not a good idea to use csh.

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